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It is widely appreciated that Czech women are generally much more attractive than those from other European countries and USA, Canada. Their attractiveness comes in various forms but essentially they embody a slender frame with beautiful eyes with straight or slightly wavy shoulder-length hair. Moreover the ladies from Czech Republic exude a level of style and composure that is lacking from those in other countries. There are many facets to their allure. The women we represent are kind, have good manners and believe in being respectful to their partners. The majority of Czech women we represent are educated and independent women, many of whom like to continue their education following graduation.

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Research on the perception of faces typically assumes that there are some universal values of attractiveness which are shared across individuals and cultures. The perception of attractiveness may, however, vary across cultures due to local differences in both facial morphology and standards of beauty. To examine cross-cultural consensus in the ratings of attractiveness, we presented a set of non-manipulated photographs of Czech faces to ten samples of raters from both European Czech Republic, Estonia, Sweden, Romania, Turkey, Portugal and non-European countries Brazil, India, Cameroon, Namibia.

We examined the relative contribution of three facial markers sexual shape dimorphism, averageness, fluctuating asymmetry to the perception of attractiveness as well as the possible influence of eye color, which is a locally specific trait. In general, we found that both male and female faces which were closer to the average and more feminine in shape were regarded as more attractive, while fluctuating asymmetry had no effect. Despite a high cross-cultural consensus on attractiveness standards, ificant differences in the perception of attractiveness seem to be related to the level of socio-economic development as measured by the Human Development Index, HDI.

With respect to eye color, some local patterns emerged which we discuss as a consequence of negative frequency-dependent selection. In social interactions, human attention is rapidly and strongly oriented toward the rich and complex content of human faces. Mere exposure to a face, even one neutral in its expression, can provide information regarding the health condition, age, sex prototypicality, ethnicity, personality, dominance, prestige, trustworthiness, or attractiveness of its bearer [ 1 — 5 ].

Moreover, facial attractiveness conveys information regarding reproductive potential of prospective mating partners [ 367 ]. The evolutionary perspective of facial perception assumes that universally shared values of attractiveness exist across individuals and cultures [ 89 ]. Because certain individual features such as coloration and symmetry convey valuable genetic information, they are perceived as attractive even in many non-human species [ 1011 ].

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Nonetheless, people do not entirely agree in their assessments of facial attractiveness [ 12 — 14 ]. Agreement in the perception of attractiveness is greater within a single culture than between cultures [ 1516 ] and some studies have shown that the perception of attractiveness varies across cultures depending on the socio-cultural environment [ 1316 — 18 ].

Facial attractiveness may serve as an indicator of actual health or overall phenotypic condition. The most commonly studied traits involved in judgements of facial attractiveness are sexual shape dimorphism, facial averageness, and symmetry [ 3721 ].

Below, we briefly review evidence pertaining to these target traits as well as examine the influence of eye color on the perception of facial attractiveness. Sex-typical facial features are influenced by sex hormones and might thus affect the perception of masculinity, femininity, and also attractiveness. Masculine facial traits are interpreted as a al of phenotypic and genetic quality [ 7 ], but see [ 27 ].

For long-term partnership, however, dominance and other personal characteristics connected with masculinity such as aggressiveness are seen as negative or undesirable [ 29 ]. In a specific context, more feminine male faces, on the other hand, are preferred as an honest al of paternal investment [ 25 ].

Male facial masculinity is thus preferred only in some contexts or by some individuals, and reasons underlying such contextual and individual differences are not entirely clear. Even when controlling for a possible confounding effect of smoothness of skin and facial symmetry of composite faces, averageness still retains its influence on attractiveness [ 3132 ].

Faces closer to the population mean may be favored by stabilizing selection [ 30 ].

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Indeed, both averageness [ 33 ] and attractiveness [ 34 ] positively correlate with heterozygosity in major histocompatibility complex genes responsible for immunocompetence. Moreover, averageness is positively related to health [ 35 ] and developmental stability [ 36 ]. From this point of view, more average faces reflect the health and greater genetic diversity of face bearers who in turn may be preferred in the mate market as attractive, healthy, and parasite-free individuals [ 337 ]. Lee et al. Facial averageness was not, however, genetically correlated with attractiveness, which contradicts the assumption that averageness reflects genetic quality [ 38 ].

Nevertheless, it has also been demonstrated that averageness has a greater effect on the perception of attractiveness than juvenilization does [ 45 ]. Traits which are symmetrical at a population level can be described by their degree of fluctuating asymmetry FA. It is believed that FA reflects developmental instability of an individual, and therefore also genetic and phenotypic conditions that could influence further reproduction [ 7 ].

In human faces, exposure to stress during ontogeny is expressed in higher levels of FA [ 4647 ]. High levels of FA have been linked to various somatic and mental disorders [ 11 ], low intelligence [ 48 ], and lower health assessment [ 49 ].

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Studies which used both photographs of real faces and manipulated faces have shown a positive correlation between symmetry and rated attractiveness, e. Some other studies, however, found no such a correlation [ 5152 ]. Another study [ 53 ] found that FA was not an important factor in long-term mating preferences and some scholars believe that the evolutionary importance of FA in determining human attractiveness has been overstated [ 54 ].

It should also be noted that experiments with manipulated faces may well have yielded varied outcomes largely due to the nature of artificial manipulation [ 3 ]. Further research with faces that naturally vary in terms of FA may therefore shed more light on whether and to what extent FA plays a role in attractiveness judgments. Independently of shape proportions, the coloration of human face is a trait that offers an entirely different type of variability. Whereas the influence of skin texture and color on attractiveness judgments is discussed elsewhere, e.

According to Edwards et al. It has been hypothesized that not only natural selection but also sexual selection contributed to recent variations of skin, hair, and eye color [ 61 — 63 ]. A negative frequency-dependent selection in mate choice [ 6465 ] is a prerequisite for a model introduced by Frost [ 6162 ] which offers an explanation of the geographical distribution of various eye and hair colors. Along with hair color, eye color is a reliable predictor in assortative mating: with respect to these traits individuals prefer partners who resemble their opposite-sex parents [ 71 — 73 ].

Bovet et al. In a Norwegian study, Laeng, Mathisen, and Johnsen [ 74 ] presented which support the paternity assurance hypothesis [ 75 ]. In his study, blue-eyed men preferred blue-eyed women because such partners provided males greater assurance of recognizing their own offspring.

Nevertheless, further evidence did not support this finding, because recessive features were not preferred by male raters in Finland [ 76 ], France [ 59 ] or among married couples in Slovakia [ 77 ]. Unlike hair color preferences [ 8081 ], cross-cultural evidence for eye color preferences is lacking. Cultural context that potentially influence the perception of facial attractiveness can be described in terms of environmental harshness, pathogen load, income inequality, visual experience, and cultural standards.

Much of cross-cultural research assumes that mate preferences are shaped towards sex-typical facial characteristics, i. Moore et al. These studies generally show that masculine features in male faces are preferred in regions with a high pathogen stress, harsh environment, or low levels of socio-economic development.

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Interestingly, male preference for feminine female faces is less pronounced in countries with harsher environment than in countries with better health conditions, and it has been hypothesized that this the result of strategies aimed at resource-holding potential rather than fecundity [ 86 ]. A study of Scott et al.

They suggested that the novel environment of industrialized, high-HDI countries may modify attractiveness preferences due to the specific visual diet of their inhabitants. Nonetheless, a recent study by Dixson, Little, Dixson, and Brooks [ 90 ] found no support for the hypothesis that pronounced sex-typical facial traits are preferred either in areas with higher urbanization or in environments with a higher pathogen load. Preference for facial symmetry was reported in harsher and more pathogenic environments [ 90 ].

Based on Hadza and European samples, Little, Apicella, Why are czech women so beautiful Marlowe [ 91 ] suggested that preferences for symmetry can be derived from different ecological conditions, whereby harsher environments lead to a higher preference of symmetry.

In summary, a considerable of studies on face perception brought to light various evidence to the effect that sexual dimorphism, facial averageness, and symmetry influence human mating preferences and most likely have an adaptive value [ 379 ]. While emphasizing the environmental context and visual experience, in the present study we engage in a cross-cultural investigation of the relative importance of four facial characteristics—sexual dimorphism, averageness, fluctuating asymmetry, and eye color—for the perception of attractiveness.

A set of Czech faces was rated for attractiveness by participants from the Czech Republic, and five other European and four non-European countries. Based on studies, we hypothesize that for both sexes, raters from all populations would rate faces which are closer to the average and have a lower degree of fluctuating asymmetry as more attractive. Further, we hypothesize that possible differences in ratings between the populations should reflect differences in the socio-economic conditions assessed as HDI of the target countries.

Based on existing literature, we also expect that symmetrical faces of both sexes and masculine male faces should be rated as more attractive rather in low-HDI than in high-HDI countries. In accordance with Marcinkowska et al. We also assume that preferences for facial averageness will not be substantially affected by socio-economic development. And finally, according to the hypothesis of negative frequency-dependent selection, the ratio of eye color present in a particular population of raters should influence preferences in favor of a characteristic which represents a minority type in that population.

Written informed consent was obtained from all participants involved in our study. The data were analyzed anonymously. Individuals with intermediate eye color and those with green eyes were not included due to their ambiguous eye color and relative rareness of these eye colors in the Czech population. Participants were asked in advance to refrain from any facial cosmetics and other face decorations. Photographs were taken using a digital camera Nikon D90 with a 50mm lens full frame equivalent of 75 mmstudio flash, and a reflection screen.

The subjects were seated in front of a white background, 1. All photographs were standardized with respect to eye position and clothing of the photographed subjects was digitally cropped so that only a standard, minimal length of neck was visible. The set of photographs was rated for attractiveness by volunteers, predominantly university students, in the Czech Republic, Estonia, Sweden, Romania, Turkey, Portugal, Brazil, India, Cameroon, and Namibia.

In most cases, data were collected during the year For a detailed overview of the demographic characteristics of invited raters, see Fig 1. The sequence of photographs was randomized for each rating session.

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