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Jump to. Young people 10 to 24 years and adolescents 10 to 19 yearsespecially young women and young key populations, continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV. In2. The of adolescents dying due to AIDS-related illnesses tripled between andthe only age group to have experienced a rise. This means that, even if current progress is maintained, new HIV infections among young people are expected to increase.
If progress stalls, the could be devastating.
Social media use in
Estimates suggest that as many asadditional adolescents could become infected between and The medical advances that have transformed HIV treatment have yet to alter the stark reality for young people, particularly in low to middle-income countries, such as those in sub-Saharan Africa, and young people within key populations. Multiple and intersecting forms of discrimination and structural inequality affect the lives of young people and increase their vulnerability to HIV.
Every week, 7, young women across the world acquire HIV. For example, in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, young women are up to eight times more vulnerable to HIV than young men. HIV also disproportionately affects young men who have sex with men, young people who use drugs, young transgender people and young sex workers. Young people are vulnerable to HIV at two stages of their lives; early in the first decade of life when HIV can be transmitted from mother-to-child, sometimes known as vertical transmission see children and HIVand the second decade of life when adolescence brings new vulnerability to HIV.
There are many factors that put young people at an elevated risk of HIV. Adolescence and early adulthood is a critical period of development when ificant physical and emotional changes occur. Adolescents and young people have growing personal autonomy and responsibility for their individual health.
The transition from childhood to adulthood is also a time for exploring and navigating peer relationships, gender norms, sexuality and economic responsibility. Considerable data gaps exist in our knowledge of HIV among adolescents and young people. This is particularly the case for younger adolescents because of the challenges in getting parental approval for their involvement in surveys and a lack of age-appropriate questions. Where data exist, limited sample sizes and lack of disaggregation limits the available evidence to inform programming. In part because of these gaps, adolescents and young people are often missing from national HIV strategic plans, particularly interventions beyond PMTCT.
Excluding vertical transmission, unprotected sex is the most common route of HIV infection for young people, with sharing infected needles the second. For others, it is the result of being forced to have unprotected sex, or to inject drugs. The age of sexual debut is rising, showing a positive change in attitudes among young people with regards to sexual behaviour.
It is common for young people to become sexually active by late adolescence.
Condom use among young people and adolescents remains relatively low. In 15 out of 23 countries there were similar for young men. The of sexual partners young people have is falling, although it remains high in countries most affected by the HIV epidemic.
Intergenerational sex when young people have sexual relationships with older people is thought to be an important driver of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Older partners are more likely to be living with HIV, therefore risking exposure to young people, and are more likely to expose a young person to unsafe sexual behaviours such as low condom use.
Girls at university or colleges always want nice things and this tempts them to get older men who can afford such a lifestyle especially if their parents can not. Young people may also belong to other key affected populations such as sex workersmen who have sex with menpeople who inject drugs or transgender people.
Not only do young people from key populations face widespread discrimination, stigma and violence they also face specific vulnerabilities associated with youth, including power imbalances in relationships and, sometimes, the impact of alienation from family. There is little agreement on how to meet the needs of the ificant s of young people involved in selling sex.
A majority of americans use facebook and youtube, but young adults are especially heavy users of snapchat and instagram
There is varying data on the age of entry of children into sexual exploitation and young people into sex work. Research shows that adolescents under 18 who sell sex are highly vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections STIshave higher levels of HIV and STIs than older sex workers, and have limited access to services such as HIV testing, prevention, and treatment.
A study of female sex workers in three main urban areas of Mozambique Maputo, Beira and Nampula found that young women who sell sex aged 15 to 17 years were less likely to access available HIV testing and treatment services. Despite their vulnerabilities, young people who sell sex are severely under-represented in research on HIV and sex work. Most studies of sex workers do not disaggregate programme outcomes by age, and no accurate global estimates exist of the of young people engaged in selling sex.
Data on the prevalence of 10 to 17 year-olds who are sexually exploited is particularly weak. In general, even fewer data are available on young men and young transgender people who sell sex than on young women who do so. Some young transgender people also sell sex or inject street drugs, silicon and hormones, putting them at even higher risk of acquiring HIV. Experiences of stigma, discrimination, abuse, exploitation and violence, including sexual violence, are common.
There is little global data on the HIV among young transgender people but individual studies suggest high HIV prevalence. For example, in Indonesia, HIV prevalence among transgender people was found to be 5.
Available data suggest that young men who have sex with men have greater HIV risk than both heterosexual young people and older men who have sex with men. Men who have sex with men are becoming HIV-positive at a younger age. An estimated 4.
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Young men who have sex with men are often more vulnerable to the effects of homophobia manifested in discrimination, bullying, harassment, family disapproval, social isolation and violenceas well as criminalisation and self-stigmatisation. This can have serious repercussions for their physical and mental health and their ability to access HIV testing, counselling and treatment.
Use of drugs or alcohol and selling sex contribute to HIV risk and represent overlapping vulnerabilities that some young men who have sex with men share with other young key populations. Young MSM are often unable to respond effectively to homophobia because of their age — they have no income, no employment, and they are dependent on family for housing.
If they get kicked out, and they often do, they end up on the street where they may be forced to trade sex for food, shelter or protection. Current methods of gathering and reporting data make it impossible to calculate a reliable global estimate of the of young people who inject drugs. HIV prevalence among young people who inject drugs worldwide is estimated at 5. A ificant proportion of young people who inject drugs become infected with HIV within the first 12 months of initiation.
Rising rates around the world
There are often age restrictions on accessing harm reduction services, forcing young people away from services and denying them help to overcome their addiction. Consequently, there are a lack of youth-friendly health services.
Ethical and legal issues make it difficult to conduct studies and research on people under 18, limiting what data is available about how HIV affects young people. The informality of the football pitch allows young people to discuss intimate issues more freely, and the game itself means young people can play out the consequences of different decisions in an enjoyable and safe way. Sessions for older players are more complex in terms of football and health messaging. In3, young people received HIV testing and counselling from PB, with more than 2, getting tested for the first time.
PB also provided SRH information to more than 5, young people.
Online dating leaves middle-aged women in 'single wilderness'
PB trains community-based volunteers to run youth groups linked to clinics and also runs a group for young prisoners and an LGBT group peer-led by an LGBT young person. The groups use WhatsApp to mobilise and support each other outside of youth group meetings, which has proved a useful way to share information safely and quickly.
The influence, power and control that many adults have on the lives of young people means that engaging various stakeholders such as parents, health providers and community leaders is key to HIV prevention for young people. More progress needs to be made to ensure there is equality in access to schools by both girls and boys, and to prevent them from dropping out. However, a study of schools in rural Zimbabwe published in found many teachers felt they lacked formal SRHR skills e.
Teachers defined their role predominantly in terms of the transmission of factual knowledge and the exercise of discipline, with the notion of care and support not fitting easily into this framework. Young people have the potential to be great peer educators, and to help in the de of HIV-related services and programmes. Technology and social media are consistently being proved as effective ways to engage young people in sharing HIV knowledge.
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In early adulthood, programming should take into that young adults will have less support from their families and communities as they transition to working and living independently. Enabling adolescents to graduate from school with the skills and experience to participate in the workforce can ificantly affect HIV outcomes. This is because unemployment or working in poorly paid jobs can lead to economic vulnerability, which may in turn motivate young people to engage in selling sex or embark in age-disparate, transactional relationships.
If young people are able to access comprehensive sexuality education CSE before becoming sexually active they are more likely to make informed decisions about their sexuality and approach relationships with more self-confidence. However, many young people do not receive adequate HIV and sex education. Many SRHR health services are also unappealing or unfriendly to adolescents and young people. Many young people report that healthcare workers have negative attitudes towards young people seeking SRHR services, particularly those having sex under the national age of consent, engaging in same-sex relationships or using drugs.
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Some young people are also fearful of stigma from their partners, families and communities, making them unwilling to come forward for HIV testing. This has been especially the case among adolescents and young people, who often underestimate their HIV risk. Mobile and community testing initiatives are a successful way of reaching young people who are less likely to voluntarily visit a static testing centre. Of 1, people tested by the mobile unit during an month period ending in Junewere aged 13 to 19, were adolescent men who have sex with men, and were aged 13 to 19 who were in conflict with the law.
Can you support us and protect our future? In many countries, the age of consent for testing for HIV is high at around 18 to 21, leaving people younger than this having to obtain parental consent. This is much more likely to result in a young person not getting an HIV test when discussions with parents around sexual relations and HIV are necessary. For many orphaned young people, parental consent is not an option and so they are denied access. Young people need extra support to transfer to treatment if they test positive, as they may otherwise get lost in the treatment cascade.
Access to ART for young people is unknown because data is disaggregated into children under 15 years and adults over 15 years.