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Wiley and the Movement New York: W. The area around Barry Farm rapidly transformed into Doulass-dwellings-DC low-to-moderate income, almost entirely black-occupied section of the city. Gentrification London and Palen refer to the first people to invade the cities as "urban pioneers".


ArticlesD. The isolated community was self-contained by de, requiring residents not only to demand the installation of basic utilities, but to lead the way in building schools, churches, and civic organizations. Founded the same year that African American men gained the vote in D. As white hostility toward African American participation in civic life increased in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries, the Barry Farm community survived and thrived.

While its distance from downtown D. Public housing was segregated until the s.

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The complex was deed to foster family life and community engagement, and became a hub of activism in the s and 60s. Residents waged a legal campaign resulting in the desegregation of D. They were also central to D. The site was hilly, densely forested and filled with underbrush. Black laborers cleared the land and cut ro. Map of St. Elizabeths tract in Within two years of its establishment, families had moved to the site.

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As described by historian Louise Daniel Hutchinson, many families made their way to Anacostia after working downtown all day, and built homes by candlelight. Howard, among others. Its large lots provided substantial space for growing vegetables and fruit trees.

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Detail of a map of D. Courtesy of the D. Another resident, Solomon Brownwas elected to the House of Delegates by both white and black voters to represent all of Anacostia and its voting district. Other residents included attorney and justice of the peace John Moss, assistant superintendent for D. The Edmondsons raised their children at Barry Farm and remained there for the rest of their lives. Elizabeths Hospital or across the river at the Navy Yard.

Inthe government initiated the condemnation of a acre section of Barry Farm, where 23 families lived, for the construction of Barry Farm Dwellings.

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Although landowners resisted— their community was being uprooted and there was little property elsewhere that they could afford or would be sold to them—their land was taken through eminent domain. Photo courtesy of the D. Housing Authority. The program expanded ificantly in the early s, as between eight and ten million people migrated to areas of the country offering World War II-related employment.

However, most public housing was built for white residents only, and until the s, all public housing was racially segregated. The s director of D. However, the National Capital Housing Authority NCHA faced ificant resistance by the real estate and building industries to the construction of public housing, and especially to housing for African Americans, whose presence was said to devalue land that could potentially be subdivided for later sale to white residents.

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White homeowners and citizens associations also rallied against efforts to house African Americans in proximity to neighborhoods intended for exclusive white occupancy. However, it was at full occupancy by February Gottscho-Schleisner, Inc.

Photo courtesy of the Library of Congress.

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Its lack of cross streets saved on paving and utility costs and maintained safety and privacy for residents by reducing through traffic. With just three parallel ro through the complex and houses arranges in so so-called superblocks with abutting yards, open areas were easily accessible and shared. Barry Farm Dwellings interior, dated around With initial priority given to people displaced by war-related projects, families began moving to Barry Farm Dwellings in November In SeptemberBarry Farm was one of three public housing sites to which a total of families were moved after being displaced for the construction of Suitland Parkway.

Barry Farms in the early s. Among those who lived at Barry Farm Dwellings by were several families whose children became plaintiffs in a lawsuit against the D. Old school buildings originally built for white children were often deated for African American use once they began to deteriorate or become outdated. Navy Yard employee James C. Birney Elementary School nearby. Their older siblings had traveled all the way to schools in Southwest and Northwest D.

So when it was announced that a brand new whites-only school, John Philip Sousa Junior High, would open nearby on Ely Place in Septemberthe Jennings ed other neighborhood residents in organizing to fight for access. When Sousa Junior High opened on September 11,the Jennings girls ed several of their neighbors as well as the brothers Spottswood and Wanamaker Bolling, who lived nearby on Stanton Terrace, in demanding admittance to the school. After the students were turned away, attorneys filed Bolling v. Barry Farm residents had pushed for this approach, and threw their support behind the case by hosting fundraising dinners and raffles at Campbell AME, and by soliciting contributions to pay for legal expenses other than the attorneys themselves, who worked for free.

Sharpe and Brown v. Board of Education decisions, which ended public school segregation in D. Reprinted with permission of the D. Bolling v. Sharpe was dismissed by the District Courts, but in the fall ofjust after a new school year had kicked off with 26 overcrowded black elementary schools operating on double shifts, the Supreme Court asked to hear the case as a companion to Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Douglass-dwellings-DC sex on the side.

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When the Supreme court finally ruled, in Maythat the racial segregation of public schools was unconstitutional, Bolling v. By the early s, public housing had become the last refuge for low-income African Americans displaced by urban renewal and redevelopment.

The area around Barry Farm rapidly transformed into a low-to-moderate income, almost entirely black-occupied section of the city.

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The concentration of low-income apartment housing in an area that remained isolated from the rest of the city and from basic amenities such as grocery stores, combined with municipal disinvestment east of the Anacostia River and the legal desegregation of suburban housing, exacerbated the abandonment of this area by people who could afford to move elsewhere. Barry Farm Dwellings had begun showing s of serious neglect by the National Capital Housing Authority by the mids, even though it was just over twenty years old.

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The city had stopped providing even basic maintenance, such as the replacement of burnt-out street lights, not only within Barry Farm Dwellings, but throughout this entire section of the city. Entering homes without permission, investigators searched for evidence of paid employment and for the presence of male partners; having a man in the house could disqualify women from receiving public funds. Inthanks to President Lyndon B. Photographer: Jack Rottier.

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General Hospital, and the establishment of a task force on health care for low-income D. Members arrived at stores en masse to demand s and—when rejected—waged sit-ins. Numerous department stores changed their policies as a result. Horn and the NWRO were ultimately credited with shifting the civil rights movement toward economic concerns, rather than demands for equal access. On March 31,following his first face-to-face meeting with Horn and her colleagues in early February, the Rev.

Martin Luther King Jr. In addition to supporting the Band of Angels, War on Poverty funds directed to Southeast Neighborhood House also were directed to organizing low-income youth in and around Barry Farm Dwellings. Paid youth workers fanned out across Barry Farm Dwellings and the surrounding area, surveying residents, raising awareness of shared problems, and fostering engagement in a community-led movement to demand that the city address their needs.

Rebels With a Cause, comprising up to teenagers and young adults, formed at the same time to respond to specific issues faced by youth, who constituted around 70 percent of Barry Farm residents. Among the most dangerous issues faced by black youth, not only at Barry Farm but across the city, was discriminatory policing. The Metropolitan District Police were notoriously abusive and were rarely held able for brutal behavior resulting in Douglass-dwellings-DC sex on the side harm or death.

In Julyfifteen of the Rebels, along with seven other Barry Farm-area residents, convened a meeting with police where they asked for an opportunity meet the officers who patrolled their neighborhood.

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They were not only rebuffed, but five weeks later, police interrupted a community meeting to make an arrest. When residents protested in front of precinct headquarters, police attacked them with batons and dogs. You get off the bus about at night and you pray that you can get home. Stokely Carmichael at Barry Farm Dwellings, In this photo, he is seen on Eaton Road at the heart of the community. Philip Perkins, a neighborhood worker for Southeast Neighborhood House is standing to his left.

A more attainable goal was the improvement of infrastructure around Barry Farm. A new playground was built at nearby Sheridan Terrace and funds allocated for a new recreation center at Douglass Dwellings. Three new swimming pools were also planned.

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In addition to their work at Barry Farm, the Rebels established a range of programs, from day care to cultural activities to employment services, and were ultimately recognized as a model for youth programming across the city. In the early s, Barry Farm Dwellings became a hub for D. Under the leadership of a former Barry Farm resident who quickly ed on to manage the group, the boys performed at recreation centers all over the city, for half-time shows, and at the Washington Coliseum and the National Geographic Society, among other venues.

While Barry Farm Dwellings has suffered from the impacts of segregationmunicipal neglect, invasive welfare policies, and racialized policing, it also has a profoundly rich history. However, Barry Farm remained a hub for political leadership and community action, a legacy that carries forward to this day.

A hearing on the landmark nomination will be held by the Historic Preservation Review Board on July 25, A related exhibit is currently on display at the Anacostia Library. Public Library for providing access to research files and photos, and Patricia Savage for her research assistance.

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The sound of hoe, pick, rake, shovel, saw and hammer rang through the late hours of the night Press, William D.

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