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This 17th-Century phrase, attributed to a historian of the Dutch occupation of northeastern Brazil, is still being repeated, sometimes by Brazilians themselves. If sin implies guilt over sexual pleasures, the statement was undoubtedly true for the uninhibited naked Indians who greeted the first Europeans in Brazil. However, while sexual indulgences continued after the arrival of Christianity, the guilt inherent in the idea of sin took the shine off the apple. Cultural anthropologist Richard G.


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History of brazil

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Book review : brazilian sexuality under examination : bodies, pleasures, and passions: sexual culture in contemporary brazil by richard g. parker . beacon press, $, s

Carmen Miranda b. A success overnight, Miranda would then be invited to star in her first US film, Down Argentine Brazil sexuality culturewith 20th Century Fox, and would be cast in thirteen subsequent films. Her excessive femininity, imbued with style, exaggeration, and playful deception, and her inclusion in musicals governed by theatricality and artifice, made her a productive site for camp interpretations that have remained in vogue to this day.

Gender and Sexuality in Brazil since Independence. As gender historians have shed light on how racialized and patriarchal gender and sexual roles have been reconstituted in different historical contexts, empirical studies in the field of social history have focused primarily on the historical agency of women, particularly non-elite women, who lived within or pushed against the confines of prescribed gender roles.

Pioneering histories of sexual minorities have accompanied this trajectory since the s, although this subfield has grown more slowly. Under the empire —honor is the entryway for analysis of gender and sexuality.

[opinions and attitudes regarding sexuality: brazilian national research, ]

Gendered standards of honor were critical tools used to mark class and racial boundaries, and to traverse them. Historians of the imperial period also stress the centrality of gender to the social, cultural, and economic networks built by members of various occupational, familial, and kinship groups. During the First Republic —the focus shifts to state vigilance and social control, together with debates over modernization of sexual and gender norms, particularly regarding urban space and prostitution. A new emphasis on domesticity emerged in the context of developmentalism in the s, helping to spur a reaction in the form of the counterculture and sexual revolution of the s and s.

The dictatorship — went to great lengths to suppress challenges to gender and sexual norms as part of its broader strategy to demobilize society and Brazil sexuality culture oppositional political movements. These challenges reemerged in the s, when feminists and sexual minorities gained much greater visibility within a new wave of social movements.

ificant legal changes followed over subsequent decades, including recognition of equal labor rights for domestic and sex workers, affirmative-action policies, and Brazil sexuality culture legalization of same-sex marriage, in Despite notable setbacks, the momentum toward gender and sexual equality at the start of the 21st century was remarkable. This momentum was halted by the political coup that ousted the first woman president in Gender and Sexuality in Colonial Brazil. The topics of gender and sexuality in Brazilian historiography, though available from colonial chroniclers to the present, were notably absent in 19th-century historiography, which was constrained by the moral taboos and racial prejudices of that age.

This was true until the early 20th-century turning point represented by the works of Paulo Prado with regard to language, and of Gilberto Freyre with regard to content, in their pioneering attempts to address the issue, emphasizing how interracial procreation and sexual desires shaped Brazilian history.

Historical research at universities began in the s, based on unpublished sources and international scholarship on new topics. This resulted in studies on marital relations, misogynist patriarchalism, accepted models of licit sexuality, and various other transgressions such as adultery, concubinage, male and female homosexuality, sexual imagery, libidinous behavior by members of the clergy, and acts considered deviant behavior or associated with heresy.

Recently, sources have come into use from the Ecclesiastical Court and the Portuguese Inquisition, which assumed jurisdiction over accusations of bigamy, sodomy, priests who took advantage of the confessional to molest their parishioners, and declarations that contradicted Catholic moral theology with regard to chastity, celibacy, and fornication or were suspected of being heretical due to their association with Protestant doctrines.

Additionally, there are important works inspired by French scholarship on the history of mentalities and the historical and philosophical contributions of Michel Foucault. They also appropriated public spaces for dissident sexualities and gender performances. Carnival became a privileged site for subverting traditional gender roles.

Lesbians fought within the feminist movement for acceptance and against social norms that marginalized them. Trans people gained considerable respect and Brazil sexuality culture rights. A recent reactionary backlash, which has united conservative Catholics, evangelical Christians, and right-wing political forces, is trying to undo the advances made since the late s in favor of social toleration, respect, and equality. Sexuality and Black Magic in Brazil.

Gender, sexuality, and aids in brazil: transformative approaches to hiv prevention

However, black magic is a peculiar and protean thing. Rather than defining a specific set of ideas, practices, and objects, or a systematic body of knowledge, black magic is better understood as a type of discourse the social function of which is to stigmatize its referent as maleficent, immoral, or evil. Because of its negative connotations, black magic typically is a discourse of accusation rather than self-affirmation: People accuse others of practicing black magic rather than describing their own practices this way.

Nevertheless, the dangerous potential attributed to black magic means that some people openly claim it as a source of power in certain circumstances.

Focusing on the various intersections of black magic and sexuality in Brazilian history reveals aspects of social life and of persons that elite authorities, in the effort to civilize and reform Brazil, identified as problematic. Because these shifted over time, different constellations of black magic and sexuality emerge as especially salient in different historical periods. Under the empire —black magic was associated particularly with the threat of black sorcerers whose perceived promiscuity and primitivity threatened the civilized society that elites envisioned.

During the first Republican period —public officials used black magic as a catchall deation for a broad range of popular spiritual practices deemed illicit by the state in its struggle against social degeneracy and other ills.

The first few decades of the 20th century saw the consolidation of the Afro-Brazilian spirit entities Exu and Pombagira as distinctive apotheoses of black magic and sexuality in the Brazilian cultural imagination. More recently, discourse about black magic among evangelical Christians has centered on the violence and sexual immorality associated with the drug trade that has flourished in many Brazilian cities. As a moral discourse that Brazil sexuality culture the licit by identifying the illicit, black magic is used in situations marked by struggles for social legitimacy and the access to resources and influence that such legitimacy enables.

The protean nature of black magic means that it is endlessly adaptable to different social realities, from the struggles of Portuguese colonists in a new land to the urban violence associated with contemporary drug trafficking. And because questions of power are deeply embedded within the term, accusations of black magic seem to burgeon precisely in moments of social transformation when the status quo is in flux, centers of influence are being formed, and new patterns of social division or alignment are being established.

In the early twentieth century, Brazil depended on coffee exports, its slave regime had just been abolished, and most of its inhabitants lived in the countryside. The Catholic Church exercised the moral direction of society, and White landowners virtually established the rules of sociability and controlled economic and political life.

Wealthy and White middle-class women had access to some form of education, and when they left the family home, it was to marry and raise a family, being completely dependent on their husbands, with no political rights, and only allowed to work upon marital authorization. With rapid urbanization, wretched working conditions, as either a domestic servant or a textile worker the two female labor nichesworsened the lives of poor women in the city. In a military coup plunged Brazil into a long dictatorship that only ended in with the return of democratic institutions and the election of a civil president.

Women and the Catholic Church in Colonial Brazil. Women in colonial Brazil — were affected by the presence of the Portuguese Roman Catholic Church in nearly every dimension of their lives. The Catholic Church dominated the colonial religious and social world and, with the imperial government of Portugal, set and transmitted gender expectations for girls and women, regulated marriage and sexuality, and directed appropriate education and work lives.

Even with the harshest restrictions, women were able to develop an independent sense of self and religious expression both within the Catholic Church and outside its reach. Native Brazilian women felt the impact of the new faith from the earliest days of conquest, when their opportunities for religious influence expanded among the early colonists and Brazil sexuality culture.

After the s, however, new rules for belief and behavior gradually replaced indigenous culture. Offering the Virgin Mary as the ideal woman, the Church expected that indigenous women convert to Catholicism, work for the colonists, and marry according to traditional canon law. Portuguese immigrant women also faced the constraints of the early modern gender roles, with chastity, modesty, and submission deemed essential to their feminine nature, and marriage, domestic labor, and childcare their fate.

Enslaved African women Brazil sexuality culture compelled to accept Catholic teachings alongside the expectations of servile work and marginalization in colonial society. For each segment of colonial society, religious rules barely acknowledged the real abuses that afflicted women through the personal and sexual domination of colonial men, and women found little consolation in the ideals set for elite women. Religion itself presented women with opportunities for personal development, and women found spiritual expression through votive prayers, cloistered convents, membership in religious brotherhoods, and covert religious and magical practices.

European women used magical rites in defiance of Catholic teachings, while indigenous women preserved elements of their own healing traditions, and African women and their descendants created charms and celebrations that secured their separate religious identity.

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In a country that simply oozes sexuality, sensuality, and a fun-loving spirit, dating in Brazil can be relatively easy.


Objective: To describe opinions and attitudes concerning sexuality of the Brazilian urban population.


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It commences with an outline of some key tenets of emerging perspectives on male sexuality in Brazil and contemporary issues such as sexual orientation, first intercourse, perception of male sexual nature, sexual philosophies with particular reference to gender and the double standard and of sexual partners.