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Henry Y. Six Alabama Satsuma mandarin orchards four conventionally sprayed and two unsprayed were surveyed during and to determine the population dynamics of arthropod pests and their natural enemies. Twenty-eight arthropod pest species were encountered; the major foliage pests were citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri Ashmead ; purple scale, Lepidosaphes beckii Newman ; Glover scale, L. Two distinct population peaks were recorded for citrus whitefly at most locations.

The most important direct sources of citrus whitefly mortality were parasitism by Encarsia lahorensis Howard and infection by the pathogenic fungus, Aschersonia aleyrodis Webber. In general, all stages of both scale insects purple scale and Glover scale were present in the orchards year-round, indicative of overlapping generations; however, the highest densities were recorded during the early season. Citrus whitefly, purple scale, and Glover scale were more abundant on leaves collected from the interior of the tree canopy than in the exterior canopy.

Citrus red mite densities were highest in the spring, with populations declining at the start of the summer, and were more abundant in the exterior canopy than in the interior canopy.

Production practices for satsuma mandarins in the southeastern united states

The most important natural enemies of citrus red Adult singles dating in satsumaalabama al were predatory mites belonging to several families, of which Typhlodromalus peregrinus Muma Phytoseiidae was the predominant species. Major differences were recorded in the relative abundance of different arthropod pest species in the orchards: citrus whitefly, purple scale, and Glover scale predominated in the unsprayed orchards, whereas citrus red mite infestations were more severe in the sprayed orchards. The are discussed in relation to the possible effect of orchard management practices on abundance of the major pests.

Satsuma mandarin, Citrus unshiu Marcovitch, has been grown for more than a century along the Gulf Coast in Alabama and neighboring states English and Turnipseedbut growth and expansion of the industry has been hampered by periodic freezes, which until recently, have been severely devastating to the crop WinbergCampbell et al. Since the early s, there has been an increase in the production of Satsuma mandarins in southern Alabama, particularly in the two coastal counties Mobile and Baldwin that surround Mobile Bay.

Renewed interest in Satsuma production by coastal growers is fueled by recent availability of new cold-hardy rootstocks coupled with improved methods for tree protection from temperature variations that occur in the region Campbell et al. Strong industry and state support are also promoting industry growth, with much effort being made to develop new markets Campbell et al.

About one third of the local Satsuma mandarin crop has been sold annually to the Alabama public school system since As in other citrus-growing regions, one of the major factors limiting the expansion of the budding Alabama Satsuma citrus industry is pest damage and management. However, little is known about the identity and seasonal population dynamics of key arthropod pests of Satsuma citrus and their natural enemies in Alabama.

The first published studies on life history and control of pests of Alabama Satsuma citrus was conducted in the early part of the last century DozierEnglish and Turnipseed, which resulted in the identification of the following arthropods as pests of the crop in Alabama: citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri Ashmead Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae ; purple scale, Lepidosaphes beckii Newman Hemiptera: Diaspididae ; Glover scale, L.

After these early publications, commercial production of Satsuma mandarins in Alabama was largely abandoned because of severe freezes, although dooryard production continued sporadically. With the ongoing expansion of commercial Satsuma mandarin orchards in the state, it is imperative to develop ecologically based pest management practices that will optimize production while reducing pest management costs and impacts.

A first step toward this goal is a systematic study of the population dynamics of key arthropod pests and associated natural enemies in local citrus orchards. Inwe initiated a preliminary pest survey in a few local citrus orchards to determine arthropod activity and abundance. The survey identified several arthropod pests with the potential to cause economic loss to growers. These included fruit feeders such as citrus rust mite, P. Hemiptera: Coreidaeas well as foliage-feeders such as citrus red mite, P.

Based on these preliminarywe conducted a follow-up extensive survey of six Alabama citrus orchards from June to December to quantify the population dynamics of citrus pests and their natural enemies. In this paper, we report the of the pest survey and describe the population dynamics of the following key foliage pests and their natural enemies: citrus whitefly, purple scale, Glover scale, and citrus red mite.

Surveys were conducted during and in six citrus orchards located in Baldwin and Mobile counties three orchards per countythe two main citrus-growing counties in south Alabama. The survey orchards were comprised primarily of Satsuma mandarin, with very limited occurrence of sweet orange Citrus sinensis L. Osbeckgrapefruit C. The predominant cultivar of Satsuma mandarin was 'Owari', with a few trees each of 'Armstrong Early' and 'Brown's Select'. Information about the location, size, and management practices for each orchard is presented in Table 1. Four of these orchards were commercial farms typically managed using conventional practices including routine applications of pesticides, whereas the remaining two orchards were unsprayed before and during the surveys.

At each location, a group of six trees was selected at random, and the leaves were sampled repeatedly for pest and beneficial arthropods from June to December Sampling was conducted at approximately bi-weekly intervals from March to November during high arthropod activity and monthly from November to February. Three leaves were collected from the outer exterior and inner interior portions of the tree canopy at each of the four quadrant for a total of 24 leaves per tree per sampling date i.

Samples consisted of a mixture of mature and young fully developed leaves when available. After conducting on-site visual sampling of motile pest stages and natural enemies, the leaves were collected in properly labeled paper bags, held in a cooler, and transported to the laboratory, where they were stored in the refrigerator until examined.

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Because of their high abundance and potential economic impact in the surveyed orchards, particular attention was paid to the following pests and their key natural enemies: citrus whitefly, D. The following data were recorded for citrus whitefly: of life stages i. For scale insects, we recorded the following data: of life stages of purple scale i. Crawlers of purple scale are typically transparent white with fiery red eyes, whereas crawlers of Glover scale are translucent waxy white with the outer edge of the last t yellowish.

Eggs of citrus whitefly and scale insects were not recorded because these were impractical to accurately count. Data recorded for mites included s of eggs and motile stages of citrus red mite and of predatory mites citrus rust mite infestations were rarely observed on the foliage samples and hence will not be reported. Predatory mite PM data were initially recorded by family but were later pooled and summarized as total of predatory mites.

Additionally, we also recorded the incidence of less abundant pests and highly motile arthropods such as leaffooted bugs and ants. Data for each species, location, and year were analyzed and presented separately.

For each orchard and during each year, mean s of each arthropod species per 24 leaves were calculated for each sampling period bi-weekly or monthly using the six trees as replicates. For five of the locations, leaf samples obtained from the exterior and interior parts of the canopy were combined for analysis.

However, exterior and interior leaf samples in one of the locations Brantley were processed separately.

Twenty-eight species of insect and mite pests were encountered in the surveyed Satsuma citrus orchards during Table 2. These included 24 insect species from five orders: Hemiptera 18 speciesHymenoptera 1 speciesLepidoptera 2 speciesOrthoptera 2 speciesand Thysanoptera 1 species.

In addition, four species of pest mites Acari were identified. The arthropod pest fauna was classified into four based on their occurrence, distribution, and abundance population density in the surveyed orchards. Arthropod pests encountered in six citrus orchard sites in south Alabama Pest status is based on population abundance and potential for economic damage.

The following species are considered "major pests" of citrus in Alabama because of their occurrence in all surveyed orchards widely distributed at high population densities: citrus whitefly, D. The second category includes pests that occurred in the majority of the surveyed orchards in moderate to high densities. These pests are classified in this paper as "minor-major" pests and included: citrus rust mite, P. Although, the density of citrus rust mite was generally low in this leaf-based survey, it is considered a minor-major pest based on the of a separate survey of fruit samples that confirmed its occurrence in moderate to high densities in most of the orchards unpublished data.

Moderate to high infestations of citrus leafminer were observed in some orchards. Thus, intensive surveys including adult monitoring were conducted specifically for this pest and associated natural enemies during The will be summarized for publication at the completion of the season.

Twelve species are included in this minor pest category, which are also referred to as secondary pests, including leaffooted bug, L. The fourth category referred to as "occasional pests" includes nine species that were encountered only sporadically in the surveyed orchards, such as broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks Acari: Tarsonemidae ; brown soft scale, Coccus hesperidium L.

Hemiptera: Diaspididae ; and orthopteran pests such as eastern lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera Beauvois Orthoptera: Acrididae and American grasshopper, Schistocera americana Drury Orthoptera: Acrididae. We consider only the species in the first two major and minor-major pests as key pests of citrus in Alabama, because grower pest management decisions are likely to center on one or more of these pests.

The 28 species can also be classified as direct those that attack the fruit or indirect foliage feeders pests. Leaffooted bugs, stink bugs, and citrus rust mite are direct pests of citrus in Alabama, although purple scale and citrus red mite damage can also occur on the fruit, in particular, when infestations are heavy.

The remaining pests are primarily indirect pests of citrus. Several species of natural enemies were observed in the surveyed orchards, many of which were found in association with some of the above pests.

These included predators, parasitoids, and fungal pathogens. The most common predators observed were predatory spiders Araneae ; green lacewing, Chrysoperla spp. All of these are generalist predators of several pests including citrus leafminer, citrus whitefy, scale insects, and mites. In addition, we recorded several species of predatory mites in the families Anystidae, Ascidae, Bdellidae, Cheyletidae, Cunaxidae, Erythraeidae, Eupalopsellidae, Phytoseiidae, and Stigmaeidae.

The dominant predatory mite species was Typhlodromalus peregrinus Muma Acari: Phytoseiidae.

Many of these predatory mites may be important predators of citrus red mite and other pest mites. Mite species in the families Tydeidae and Tarsonemidae were also recorded, although further studies are necessary to confirm their feeding patterns and whether they are predatory. The six-spotted thrips, Scolothrips sexmaculatus Pergande Thysanoptera: Thripidaewas occasionally observed attacking citrus red mite. A few parasitoids were recorded in association with some key pests.

These included Encarsia lahorensis Howard Hymenoptera: Aphelinidaethe dominant parasitoid of citrus whitefly. An important parasitoid of purple scale, Aphytis lepidosaphes Compere Hymenoptera: Aphelinidaewas also observed parasitizing nymphs of purple scale in some samples taken from the Revel and McDaniel sites. In addition, a predatory thrips, Aleurodothrips fasciapennis Franklin Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidaewas regularly observed attacking eggs, nymphs, and adults of purple scale during peak populations. Two parasitoids were reared from citrus leafminer: Ageniaspis citricola Logvinovskaya Hymenoptera: Encyrtidaean endo-parasitoid, and Cirrospilus ingenuus Gahan Hymenoptera: Eulophidaean ecto-parasitoid.

Widespread epizootic infection by the fungal pathogen, A. The relative abundance of the major pests and predatory mites in the six surveyed orchards is shown in Table 3. The abundance of the various pests varied considerably by location and year. For brevity, seasonal phenology data for are presented for the top three locations for each pest i. Phenology data recorded in at the top three locations are presented in the charts Figs. Although several types of data were collected, only data for the important parameters are summarized here.

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Similarly, parameters with inificant numerical data are not presented. Seasonal phenology of citrus whitefly CWFD. Relative abundance of key arthropods in the six Alabama citrus orchards surveyed during Means in bold indicate the top three locations with the highest abundance of each pest species in Infestation of citrus whitefly was confined almost entirely to the underside surface of leaves and varied considerably by year and orchard.

Population densities of citrus whitefly ranged from a seasonal mean of 1. The highest population densities were recorded at McDaniel, Brantley, and Revel inand data for these three locations were used to generate phenology charts for citrus whitefly Fig. Counts of live adults were very low in the orchards, even though there were high s of pupal cases with adult emergence holes.

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Satsuma mandarin is presently the primary citrus crop for citrus growers in south Alabama, south Mississippi, and for certain new plantings in northwest Florida.